Plate lamination defect is one of the primary processing discontinuity that originates during hot or cold forming processes and is considered as a serious metal plate defect. All the metals contain discontinuities at micro and macro levels. These discontinuities, when above the acceptance level, are termed as defects. The discontinuities in metal are classified according to the stage of manufacturing in which they initiate. Plate lamination defect can be defined as flat and thin subsurface separations present inside metal plate, parallel to the surface of the plates. The sources of this defect are inherent discontinuities present in metal such as inclusion and porosity, which are flattened during the rolling process. Carbon Steel Plate Lamination Defect & ReasonsA carbon steel plate is produced by the process of hot or cold rolling a thick slab. During this process, carbon steel may pass through the rollers many times to achieve the desired thickness.Each pass results in an increa…
Comparison of the use of rutile and cellulosic electrodes
Types of electrodes and their compositions
Many types of manual metal arc (MMA) electrodes are available on the market. Depending on the main constituent of their flux, they are grouped into three categories: cellulosic, rutile and basic. All electrodes consist of a cored wire (typically 2.5–6mm diameter) coated by a flux. The core wire is generally made of low-quality riming steel and the fluxes contain many elements allowing refinement of the weld macrostructure.
The composition of the flux impacts the electrodes’ behaviour. The main constituents of the different types of electrodes and the shielding gas created for each are described in Table 1 (Bowniszewski, 1979). Table 1 Main constituent of the three possible types of electrodes and shielding gas created by its combustion. Electrode typeMain constituentShielding gas createdRutileTitania (TiO2)Mainly CO2BasicCalcium compoundsMainly CO2CellulosicCelluloseHydrogen + CO2
Decibel's Parent Concern Argyll-Ruane has changed the name to 'Engineering Training Solutions'Since after the acquisition of our company by Institution of Mechanical Engineers it's was planned to stream line our all Training divisions under a common brand name and by this January 2106 this change had been made in effect.